In Course 2 students develop more strategies in collaborative mathematical practice and productive dialogue. They debate around mathematical ideas, and continue iterative inquiry to derive the meaning of more complex procedures. Learning in this way continues to be viewed with equal importance to the content covered. Course 2 develops students’ abstract thinking which is required for more algebraic representations. Students complete operations with integers and rational numbers, including use of the Order of Operations. They use diagrams and equal ratios to represent part-whole relationships. Percentages and scale factors are used to determine percent increase or decrease, discounts, and markups. Pre-Algebra skills are developed through investigation of how variable expressions represent quantities in contextual problems. Additionally, students learn to simplify variable expressions by combining like terms and using the Distributive Property. Students solve linear equations, including those with fractional coefficients, and those with no solutions or infinitely many solutions. They solve and graph one-variable inequalities. An extensive exploration of probability includes comparing experimental and theoretical probabilities, distinguishing between dependent and independent events, and calculating the probability of compound independent events. Students also represent probabilities of multiple events using area models, tree diagrams, and systemic lists. Study of statistics is continued through designing, conducting, and analyzing surveys. In addition, students collect, compare, and describe the distribution of data. Distance, rate, and time problems continue from Course 1 with increasing complexity. Proportional thinking is emphasized, as are ratios and the calculation of unit rates. Students extend their understanding of geometry through recognizing and using the properties of similar figures and scale factors to solve problems. They describe angles, angle pairs, and their measures. Students deepen their ability to compute area and perimeter of standard and compound shapes, as well as compute the volume of a variety of solids.